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Rainforest – Links and References


The conceptual models were compiled by researchers in collaboration with a wide range of stakeholders from Natural Resource Management groups, universities and government agencies and based on available scientific information[1].

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Additional information


Adame, MF, Vilas, MP, Franklin, H, Garzon-Garcia, A, Hamilton, D, Ronan, M & Griffiths, M (2021), 'A conceptual model of nitrogen dynamics for the Great Barrier Reef catchments', Marine Pollution Bulletin. [online], vol. 173PA. Available at:


Benson, LJ & Pearson, RG (1993), 'Litter inputs to a tropical Australian rainforest stream', Australian Journal of Ecology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 377-383.


Bowman, DMJS, Cook, GD & Zoppi, U (2004), 'Holocene boundary dynamics of a northern Australian monsoon rainforest patch inferred from isotopic analysis of carbon, (14C and d13C) and nitrogen (d15N) in soil organic matter', Austral Ecology, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 605-612.


Brodie, JE & Mitchell, AW (2005), 'Nutrients in Australian tropical rivers : changes with agricultural development and implications for receiving environments', Marine and Freshwater Research, vol. 56, pp. 279-302.


Brookshire, ENJ, Hedin, LO, Newbold, JD, Sigman, DM & Jackson, JK (February 2012), 'Sustained losses of bioavailable nitrogen from montane tropical forests', Nature Geoscience. [online], vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 123-126. Available at: [Accessed 2 November 2020].


Connolly, NM, Pearson, RG, Loong, D, Maughan, M & Brodie, J (2015), 'Water quality variation along streams with similar agricultural development but contrasting riparian vegetation', Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. [online], vol. 213, no. x, pp. 11-20. Available at:


Doupe, RG, Mitchell, J, Knott, MJ, Davis, AM & Lymbery, AJ (2010), 'Efficacy of exclusion fencing to protect ephemeral floodplain lagoon habitats from feral pigs (Sus scrofa).', Wetlands Ecology and Management, vol. 18, pp. 69-78.


Farnkranz, M, Wanek, W, Richter, A, Abell, G, Rasche, F & Sessitsch, A (2008), 'Nitrogen fixation by phyllosphere bacteria associated with higher plants and their colonizing epiphytes of a tropical lowland rainforest of Costa Rica', ISME Journal, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 561-570.


Gehring, C, Vlek, PLG, De Souza, LAG & Denich, M (2005), 'Biological nitrogen fixation in secondary regrowth and mature rainforest of central Amazonia', Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, vol. 111, no. 1-4, pp. 237-252.


Gell, P, Fluin, J, Tibby, J, Hancock, G, Harrison, J, Zawadzki, A, Haynes, D, Khanum, S, Little, F & Walsh, B (July 2009), 'Anthropogenic acceleration of sediment accretion in lowland floodplain wetlands, Murray–Darling Basin, Australia', Geomorphology. [online], vol. 108, no. 1-2, pp. 122-126. Available at: [Accessed 2 November 2020].


Gillman, GP, Sinclair, DF, Knowlton, R & Keys, MG (1985), 'The effect of some soil chemical properties of the selective logging of a north Queensland rainforest', Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 12, no. 3-4, pp. 195-214.


Harris, GP (2001), 'Biogeochemistry of nitrogen and phosphorus in Australian catchments, rivers and estuaries: effects of land use and flow regulation and comparisons with global patterns', Marine and Freshwater Research. [online], vol. 52, no. 1, p. 139. Available at: [Accessed 4 November 2020].


Hedin, LO, Brookshire, ENJ, Menge, DNL & Barron, AR (2009), 'The nitrogen paradox in tropical forest ecosystems', Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. [online], vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 613-635. Available at:


Houlton, BZ, Sigman, DM & Hedin, LO (2006), 'Isotopic evidence for large gaseous nitrogen losses from tropical rainforests', PNAS, vol. 103, no. 23, pp. 8745-8750.


Kiese, R, Hewett, B & Butterbach-bahl, K (2008), 'Seasonal dynamic of gross nitrification and N2O emission at two tropical rainforest sites in Queensland, Australia', Plant and Soil, vol. 309, pp. 105-117.


Maggs, J (1991), 'Nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in rainforests of contrasting nutrient status and physiognomic structure near Lake Eacham, northeast Queensland', Austral Ecology, vol. 16, pp. 47-51.


Markewitz, D, Davidson, E, Mutinho, P & Nepstad, D (2004), 'Nutrient loss and redistribution after forest clearing on a highly weathered soil in Amazonia', Ecological Applications, vol. 14, pp. 177-199.


NASA (1 August 2021), Rainforest: Mission: Biomes. [online] Available at: [Accessed 2 August 2021].


Parrota, JA, Baker, DD & Fried, M (1994), 'Application of 15N-enrichment methodologies to estimate nitrogen fixation in Casuarina equisetifolia', Canadian Journal of Forest Research, vol. 24, pp. 201-207.


Phoenix, GK, Hicks, W, Cinderby, S, Kuylenstierna, J, Stock, W, Dentener, F, Giller, K, Austin, A, Lefroy, R, Gimeno, B, Ashmore, M & Ineson, P (2006), 'Atmospheric nitrogen deposition in world biodiversity hotspots: the need for a greater global perspective in assessing N deposition impacts', Global Change Biology, vol. 12, pp. 470-476.


Preece, ND, Crowley, GM, Lawes, MJ & van Oosterzee, P (2012), 'Comparing above-ground biomass among forest types in the Wet Tropics: Small stems and plantation types matter in carbon accounting', Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 264, pp. 228-237, Elsevier B.V.


Queensland Government, Rainforests | Wildlife habitats. [online] Available at: [Accessed 4 November 2020].


Rasiah, V & Armour, JD (2001), 'Nitrate accumulation under cropping in the Ferrosols of Far North Queensland wet tropics', Australian Journal of Soil Research. [online], vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 329-341. Available at: Scopus.


Rasiah, V, Armour, JD, Cogle, AL & Florentine, SK (2010), 'Nitrate import – export dynamics in groundwater interacting with surface-water in a wet-tropical environment', Australian Journal of Soil Research, pp. 361-370.


Robertson, GP (1984), 'Nitrification and nitrogen mineralization in a lowland rainforest succession in Costa Rica, Central America', Oecologia, no. 61, pp. 99-100.


Robertson, GP (1989), 'Nitrification and denitrification in humid tropical ecosystems : potential controls on nitrogen retention', in Mineral nutrients in tropical forest and savannah ecosystems, ed. J. Proctor, Blackwell Scientific, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, pp. pp-55-69.


Vitousek, PM (1984), 'Litterfall, nutrient cycling, and nutrient limitation in tropical forests', Ecology, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 285-298.


Weeds of rainforests and associated ecosystems: workshop proceedings (2003), p. 106, Rainforest CRC : CRC Weed Management, Cairns, Qld, eds. A C Grice & M J Setter.

Last updated: 3 March 2021

This page should be cited as:

Department of Environment, Science and Innovation, Queensland (2021) Rainforest – Links and References, WetlandInfo website, accessed 18 March 2024. Available at:

Queensland Government
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