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Eubacteria and archaebacteria are prokaryotes – that is, they are single-celled and typically lack cell organelles[2]. Although structurally less complex than organisms from other biota kingdoms, bacteria have the greatest taxonomic and functional diversity. They are found in a wide range of environments ranging from the bottom of the ocean, to volcanoes, and even the human body[3]. Some have the ability to generate their energy from inorganic compounds, store carbon and nitrogen, and facilitate nutrient cycling processes. They can also have impacts on human health, underpinning key, positive roles as part of human gut microbiota[3]. Many species of bacteria can affect processes in aquatic systems, including certain species of cyanobacteria that may affect water quality[1].

Quick facts

Some archaebacteria,
known as extremophiles, can live in harsh environmental conditions. The species Halarsenatibacter silvermanii has been found living in aquatic systems that are almost 10x more saline than the ocean[3]


  1. ^ Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (2013), Blue-green algae (cyanobacteria). [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 September 2023].
  2. ^ Joseph, A (2017), 'Chapter 4 - The Role of Oceans in the Origin of Life and in Biological Evolution', in Investigating Seafloors and Oceans, pp. 209-256.
  3. ^ a b c Merino, N, Aronson, HS, Bojanova, DP & Feyhl-Buska, J (2019), 'Living at the Extremes: Extremophiles and the Limits of Life in a Planetary Context', Frontiers Microbiology. [online], vol. 10. Available at:

Last updated: 5 October 2023

This page should be cited as:

Department of Environment, Science and Innovation, Queensland (2023) Eubacteria, WetlandInfo website, accessed 1 February 2024. Available at:

Queensland Government
WetlandInfo   —   Department of Environment, Science and Innovation