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Lacustrine – Inputs


The conceptual models were compiled by researchers in collaboration with a wide range of stakeholders from Natural Resource Management groups, universities and government agencies and based on available scientific information[2].

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Inputs of nitrogen to lacustrine systems come from a variety of sources and depend on where the system is in the landscape. The general sources and inputs may be found in the pressure pages and are listed below. Some information relating specifically to lacustrine wetlands is listed on this page.


Lacustrine specific

Lacustrine wetlands in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) catchments receive continuous supply of N, mostly through surface (dissolved inorganic nitrogen (900 (400-1400) g/ha/day))*[4][5] and groundwater flows (137 (58-222) g/ha/day)*[1]. High inputs are delivered during the wet season after floods, and continued lower inputs reach the wetlands through groundwater during the dry season[1], and to a lesser extent from nitrogen fixation and birds*[3][2].

*Nitrogen quantities may be displayed as an average followed by a minimum and maximum (range), e.g. “average (min. of range - max. of range)”.


Nitrogen inputs by animals are generally small (2.9 (1.9-3.8) g/ha/day)[2]. However, animal inputs, such as birds, could have a significant importance at local scale (e.g. tree swamps or shallow ponds especially in cleared or urban areas).


  1. ^ a b Davis, AM, Pearson, RG, Brodie, JE & Butler, B (2016), 'Review and conceptual models of agricultural impacts and water quality in waterways of the Great Barrier Reef catchment area', Marine and Freshwater Research, vol. 68, pp. 1-19.
  2. ^ a b Hahn, S, Bauer, S & Klaassen, M (2008), 'Quantification of allochthonous nutrient input into freshwater bodies by herbivorous waterbirds', Freshwater Biology, vol. 53, pp. 181-193.
  3. ^ Howarth, RW, Marino, R, Lane, J & Cole, JJ (1988), 'Nitrogen fixation in freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. 1. Rates and importance', Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 33, pp. 669-687.
  4. ^ Joo, M, Raymond, MAA, McNeil, VH, Huggins, R, Turner, RDR & Choy, S (2012), 'Estimates of sediment and nutrient loads in 10 major catchments draining to the Great Barrier Reef during 2006-2009', Marine pollution bulletin. [online], vol. 65, no. 4-9, pp. 150-166. Available at: Scopus.
  5. ^ Karim, F, Kinsey-henderson, A, Wallace, J, Arthington, AH & Pearson, RG (2012), Modelling wetland connectivity during overbank flooding in a tropical floodplain in north Queensland, Australia, vol. 2723, pp. 2710-2723.

Last updated: 9 August 2021

This page should be cited as:

Department of Environment, Science and Innovation, Queensland (2021) Lacustrine – Inputs, WetlandInfo website, accessed 18 March 2024. Available at:

Queensland Government
WetlandInfo   —   Department of Environment, Science and Innovation