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Bioreactors — Links and references

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Addy, K, Gold, AJ, Christianson, LE, David, MB, Schipper, LA, and Ratigan, NA, 2016, Denitrifying Bioreactors for Nitrate Removal: A Meta-Analysis, J. Environ. Qual. 45:873–881

Bell, N, Cooke, RAC, Olsen, T, David, MB, and Hudson, R, 2015, Characterizing the Performance of Denitrifying Bioreactors during Simulated Subsurface Drainage Events, J. Environ. Qual. 44:1647–1656

Bock, E, Smith, N, Rogers, M, Coleman, B, Reiter, M, Benham, B, and Easton ZM, 2015, Enhanced Nitrate and Phosphate Removal in a Denitrifying Bioreactor with Biochar, J. Environ. Qual. 44:605–613

Christianson, L, Tyndall, J, and Helmers, M, 2013, Financial comparison of seven nitrate reduction strategies for Midwestern agricultural drainage, Water Resources and Economics 2-3 (2013) 30–56

Krause CB, 2016,  Bioreactor reduces atrazine and nitrate in tile drain waters, Ecological Engineering 86 (2016) 269–278

Christianson, LE, and Schipper, LA, 2016, Moving Denitrifying Bioreactors beyond Proof of Concept: Introduction to the Special Section, J. Environ. Qual. 45:757–761

Christianson, LE, Lepine, C, Sibrell, PL, Penn, C, Summerfelt ST, 2017, Denitrifying woodchip bioreactor and phosphorus filter pairing to minimize pollution swapping, Water Research 121 (2017) 129-139

DAF 2018 Bioreactors: key aspects for effective design, operation and monitoring Interim guideline for bioreactor trials July 2018 Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Availabel:

David, MB., Gentry, LE, Cooke, RA, and Herbstritt, SM, 2016, Temperature and Substrate Control Woodchip Bioreactor Performance in Reducing Tile Nitrate Loads in East-Central Illinois, J. Environ. Qual. 45:822–829

Elgooda, Z., Robertson, WD, Schiff, SL, and Elgood, R, 2010, Nitrate removal and greenhouse gas production in a stream-bed denitrifying bioreactor, Ecological Engineering 36 (2010) 1575–1580

Fenton, O, Healy, MG, Brennan, FP, Thornton, SF, Lanigan, GJ, and. Ibrahim, TG, 2016, Holistic Evaluation of Field-Scale Denitrifying Bioreactors as a Basis to Improve Environmental Sustainability, J. Environ. Qual. 45:788–795

Goeller, BC, Febria, CM, Harding, JS, and McIntosh AR, 2016, Thinking beyond the Bioreactor Box: Incorporating Stream Ecology into Edge-of-Field Nitrate Management, J. Environ. Qual. 45:866–872

Hay, CH, and Kult, KJ, 2017, Looking for agricultural water quality protection practices: Denitrifying bioreactors, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 72(6):129A-132A

Long, LM, Schipper, LA, and Bruesewitz, DA, 2011, Long-term nitrate removal in a denitrification wall, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 140 (2011) 514–520

Lynn, TJ, Yeh, DH, and Ergas SJ, 2015, Performance of Denitrifying Stormwater Biofilters Under Intermittent Conditions, Environmental Engineering Science Volume 32, Number 9

Moorman, TB, Tomer, MD, Smith, DR, and Jaynes, DB, 2014 Evaluating the potential role of denitrifying bioreactors in reducing watershed-scale nitrate loads: A case study comparing three Midwestern (USA) watersheds, Ecological Engineering 75 (2015) 441–448

Pluer, WT, Geohring, LD, Steenhuis, TS, and Walter MT, 2016, Controls Influencing the Treatment of Excess Agricultural Nitrate with Denitrifying Bioreactors, J. Environ. Qual. 45:772–778

Rambags, F, Tanner, CC, Stott, R, and Schipper, LA, 2016, Fecal Bacteria, Bacteriophage, and Nutrient Reductions in a Full-Scale Denitrifying Woodchip Bioreactor, J. Environ. Qual. 45:847–854

Robertson, W, 2010, Nitrate removal rates in woodchip media of varying age, Ecological Engineering 36 (2010) 1581–1587

Rosen, T,, and Christianson, L, 2017, Performance of Denitrifying Bioreactors at Reducing Agricultural Nitrogen Pollution in a Humid Subtropical Coastal Plain Climate, Water 2017, 9, 112

Schipper, LA, and Vojvodic-Vukovic, M, 2001, Five Years of Nitrate Removal, Denitrification and Carbon Dynamics in a Denitrification Wall, Wat. Res. Vol. 35, No. 14, pp. 3473–3477

Schipper, LA,, Gold, AJ, and Davidson, EA, 2010b, Managing denitrification in human-dominated landscapes, Ecological Engineering 36 (2010) 1503–1506

Schipper, L, Robertson, WD, Gold, AJ, Jaynes, DB, and Cameron, SC, 2010a, Denitrifying bioreactors—An approach for reducing nitrate loads to receiving waters, Ecological Engineering 36 (2010) 1532–1543

Schmidt, CA, and Clark, MW, 2012, Efficacy of a denitrification wall to treat continuously high nitrate loads, Ecological Engineering 42 (2012) 203– 211

Stormwater Australia, 2009, Glossary of Terms used in the Stormwater Industry, Stormwater industry Association, Canberra, ACT

Weigelhofer, G, and Hein, T, 2015, Efficiency and detrimental side effects of denitrifying bioreactors for nitrate reduction in drainage water, Environ Sci Pollut Res (2015) 22:13534–13545

Useful links

Using denitrifying bioreactors to improve water quality on Queensland farms: Guidelines have been developed on the use of denitrifying bioreactors to improve water quality leaving farms in Queensland. These guidelines will assist land managers and advisors in deciding whether a bioreactor is suitable for a site and if so, how to design, construct and maintain them to maximise nitrate removal. The guidelines have collated and synthesised information from around 15 bioreactor trials conducted in Queensland between 2015 and 2020, together with published literature on bioreactor research in other countries.

The guidelines were developed as part of the Bioreactors for Great Barrier Reef and the Agricultural Water Treatment projects with funding from the Queensland Reef Water Quality Program.

Artificial N sinks: This website contains an atlas of where denitrifying bioreactors and constructed wetlands are being researched and implemented.

Bioreactors: key aspects for effective design, operation and monitoring. Interim guideline for bioreactor trials July 2018


In addition to the standard disclaimer located at the bottom of the page, please note the content presented is based on published knowledge of treatment systems. Many of the treatment systems described have not been trialled in different regions or land uses in Queensland. The information will be updated as new trials are conducted and monitored. If you have any additional information on treatment systems or suggestions for additional technologies please contact us using the feedback link at the bottom of this page.

Last updated: 5 October 2018

This page should be cited as:

Department of Environment and Science, Queensland (2018) Bioreactors — Links and references, WetlandInfo website, accessed 13 May 2021. Available at:

Queensland Government
WetlandInfo   —   Department of Environment and Science