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Shellfish reefs

Shellfish reefs — Links and references

Useful links

Restoring shellfish habitats one reef at a time

Rebuilding Australia's lost shellfish reefs

Restoration Guidelines for Shellfish Reefs

Restore Pumicestone Passage

OzFish - Shellfish Restoration

Healthy Land and Water - Shellfish Reef Restoration


Baggett LP, Powers SP, Brumbaugh RD, Coen LD, Deangelis BM, Greene JK, Hancock BT, Morlock SM, Allen BL, Breitburg DL, Bushek D, Grabowski JH, Grizzle RE, Grosholz ED, La Peyre MK, Luckenbach MW, Mcgraw KA, Piehler MF, Westby SR, and Zu Ermgassen PSE (2015) Guidelines for evaluating performance of oyster habitat restoration. Restoration Ecology 23:737-745

Chapman, S, and McLeod, I, 2016, Shellfish reefs for water quality treatment, presentation to the Treatment Systems in Coastal Catchments Forum, Department of Environment and Heritage Protection, Brisbane 8 July 2016.

Dame RF, Wolaver TG and Libes SM (1985). The summer uptake and release of nitrogen by an intertidal oyster reef. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research. 19: 265-268

Dame RF, Zingmark RG and Haskin E (1984). Oyster reefs as processors of estuarine materials. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 83: 239-247

Diggles BK (2013) Historical epidemiology indicates water quality decline drives loss of oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) reefs in Moreton Bay, Australia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 47:561-581

Diggles, B, 2018, Restoration of Shellfish reefs in the Pumicestone Passage, presentation to Queensland Department of Environment and Science, Brisbane, 22 May 2018.

Elliott M, Mander L, Mazik K, Simenstad C, Valesini F, Whitfield A, and Wolanski E (2016) Ecoengineering with ecohydrology: Successes and failures in estuarine restoration. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 176:12-35

Everett RA, Ruiz GM and Carlton JT (1995). Effect of oyster mariculture on submerged aquatic vegetation: An experimental test in a Pacific Northwest estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series 125: 205-217

Fitzsimons J, Branigan S, Brumbaugh RD, Mcdonald T, and Zu Ermgassen PSE. (2019) Restoration guidelines for shellfish reefs. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA, USA

Gilby B, Olds A, Chapman S, Goodridge Gaines L, Henderson C, Ortodossi N, Didderen K, Lengkeek W, van der Heide T, Schlacher T (2021) Attraction versus production in restoration: spatial and habitat effects of shellfish reefs for fish in coastal seascapes. Restoration Ecology 29:7

Gillies CL, Creighton C and McLeod IM (eds) (2015) Shellfish reef habitats: a synopsis to underpin the repair and conservation of Australia’s environmentally, socially and economically important bays and estuaries. Report to the National Environmental Science Programme, Marine Biodiversity Hub. Centre for Tropical Water and Aquatic Ecosystem Research (TropWATER) Publication, James Cook University, Townsville, 68 pp.

Gillies CL, Mcleod IM, Alleway HK, Cook P, Crawford C, Creighton C, Diggles B, Ford J, Hamer P, Heller-Wagner G, Lebrault E, Le Port A, Russell K, Sheaves M, and Warnock B (2018) Australian shellfish ecosystems: Past distribution, current status and future direction. PLoS ONE

Grabowski JH, and Peterson CH (2007) Restoring oyster reefs to recover ecosystem services. Pages 281–298 In: Cuddington K, Byers JE, Wilson WG and Hastings A, (eds) Ecosystem Engineers. Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, MA

Grabowski JH, Brumbaugh RD, Conrad RF, Keeler AG, Opaluch JJ, Peterson CH, Piehler MF, Powers SP and Smyth AR (2012). Economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by oyster reefs. Bioscience 62: 900-909

Humphries AT, Ayvazian SG, Carey JC, Hancock BT, Grabbert S, Cobb D, Strobel CJ and Fulweiler RW (2016) Directly Measured Denitrification Reveals Oyster Aquaculture and Restored Oyster Reefs Remove Nitrogen at Comparable High Rates. Front. Mar. Sci. 3:74. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2016.00074

Humphries, AT, Ayvazian, SG,. Carey, JC, Hancock, BT, Grabbert, S, Cobb, D, Strobel, CJ, and Fulweiler, RW, 2016, Directly Measured Denitrification Reveals Oyster Aquaculture and Restored Oyster Reefs Remove Nitrogen at Comparable High Rates, Front. Mar. Sci., 12 May 2016

Matt Parker, Suzanne Bricker (2020) Sustainable Oyster Aquaculture, Water Quality Improvement, and Ecosystem Service Value Potential in Maryland Chesapeake Bay, J. of Shellfish Research, 39(2):269-281 (2020).

Newell R.I.E. and E.W. Koch (2004) Modeling seagrass density and distribution in response to changes in turbidity stemming from bivalve filtration and seagrass sediment stabilization. Estuaries 27: 793-806.

Newell RIE, 2004, Ecosystem influences of natural and cultivated populations of suspension-feeding bivalve molluscs: A review, Journal of Shellfish Research Vol 23, No. 1, 51-61.

Newell, RIE, Fisher, TR, Holyoke, RR, and Cornwell, JC, 2005, Influence of Eastern oysters on nitrogen and phosphorus regeneration in Chesapeake Bay, USA. In: The Comparative Roles of Suspension-Feeders in Ecosystems. pp. 93-120, Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on The Comparative Roles of Suspension-Feeders in Ecosystems, Nida, Lithuania, 4-9 October 2003

Newell, Roger I. E. and Roger Mann (2012) Shellfish Aquaculture: Ecosystem Effects, Benthic–Pelagic Coupling and Potential for Nutrient Trading, A Report Prepared for the Secretary of Natural Resources, Commonwealth of Virginia, June 21, 2012

Nicholas E. Ray, Ji Li, Patrick C. Kangas, Daniel E. Terlizzi, Water quality upstream and downstream of a commercial oyster aquaculture facility in Chesapeake Bay, USA, Aquacultural Engineering, Volume 68, 2015, Pages 35-42.

Odd Lindahl, Rob Hart, Bodil Hernroth, Sven Kollberg, Lars-Ove Loo, Lars Olrog, Ann-Sofi Rehnstam-Holm, Jonny Svensson, Susanne Svensson, and Ulf Syversen "Improving Marine Water Quality by Mussel Farming: A Profitable Solution for Swedish Society," AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 34(2), 131-138, (1 March 2005).

Richards, RG, and Chaloupka, M, 2015, Using a weight-structured oyster population dynamic model to explore top-down control of coastal water quality in a subtropical embayment, ICES Journal of Marine Science, Volume 72, Issue 2, 1 January 2015, Pages 403–413

Zu Ermgassen PS, Spalding MD, Grizzle RE, Brumbaugh RD (2012) Quantifying the loss of a marine ecosystem service: filtration by the eastern oyster in US estuaries. Estuaries Coasts 36: 36-43

Main illustration by Lana Baskerville using IAN symbols library.


In addition to the standard disclaimer located at the bottom of the page, please note the content presented is based on published knowledge of treatment systems. Many of the treatment systems described have not been trialled in different regions or land uses in Queensland. The information will be updated as new trials are conducted and monitored. If you have any additional information on treatment systems or suggestions for additional technologies please contact us using the feedback link at the bottom of this page.

Last updated: 10 June 2022

This page should be cited as:

Department of Environment and Science, Queensland (2022) Shellfish reefs — Links and references, WetlandInfo website, accessed 13 April 2023. Available at:

Queensland Government
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